Faith, hope and charity – Fanny Rose, nee Atcherley

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The Rev. Dr. Brown said they had come on a solemn errand, and were assembled to render the last office of respect and affection to the sacred dust of one who had passed from their midst, and gone home to be with God. … Speaking for himself, he could remember when the parents of Mrs. Rose belonged to the congregation of a Manchester church of which he was then minister; and well could he recall how Sunday after Sunday in those far off days she was one of the children who sat in the congregation before him.
Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 10 Apr 1908.

It was fitting that the Rev John Brown should give an address at the funeral service for Fanny Rose, nee Atcherley, which was held on Friday 3 April 1908 in Bedford. Not only had he known Fanny and her family during his ministry at Park Chapel in Manchester, from 1855 to 1864, he had also become reacquainted with her when she moved to Bedford after her marriage. In that town, and particularly in the Bunyan Meeting, their paths had crossed many times over the ensuing years. Rev Brown had therefore had “more than usual opportunities of tracing the growth and maturing of [Fanny Rose’s] character” and observing how she became a “refined and intellectual woman”.

Fanny Rose, nee Atcherley

Fanny was the first child born to John Atcherley and his wife Sarah, nee Barkley. Her baptism at the Independent Chapel in Hunter’s Croft, at the lower end of Cannon Street in Manchester, shows that these Atcherleys were non-conformist Christians. Fanny was baptised on 25 May 1851, and the baptism register shows that she was born on 9 December 1850 – so although she was said to be 4 months old when the 1851 census was taken, she had not quite reached that age.

At the time of that census, John, Mary and Fanny Atcherley were living at 23 Stanley Street in Manchester. They were still residing in Stanley Street, but at number 49, ten years later. John, who was working as a draper’s assistant in 1851, was by 1861 a silk weaver earning enough to employ a servant and a nurse. His family was growing. Fanny now had three younger siblings: Lucy, Barkley and Jessy. And, as we have seen, the family was worshipping at the Park Chapel every Sunday, where the Rev John Brown was minister.

Park Chapel – formerly known as Ducie Chapel – was (along with Hunter’s Croft Chapel) an ‘independent’. Part of the growing Congregational Church movement in Manchester, its affairs were managed by its own congregation. John Brown’s work as minister there was evidently respected beyond the confines of the city in which the chapel was located. On 31 March 1864, at a meeting held in Bedford, it was unanimously agreed “That the Rev. John Brown, B.A., of Park Street, Manchester, should be invited to the co-pastorate of Bunyan Meeting.”

The Bunyan Meeting (the Bedford chapel of which is pictured below) took its name from its celebrated 17th century pastor John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim’s Progress. Brown accepted the invitation to become its co-pastor, leaving Manchester and the Atcherley family behind him. One member of that family would however follow him to Bedford, some six years later. Might the Reverend Brown have played a part in this?

On 16 November 1870, 19-year-old Fanny Atcherley was married to Edward Paine Rose at Park Chapel in Manchester, by John Brown’s successor the Rev John Emmett Jones. Edward was 29 and a widower. He had wed Emma Goode at the Baptist Bloomsbury Chapel in London in 1864, and with her had two children: Thomas Edward Rose and Agnes Emma Rose. Tragedy struck in May 1867, when the death of 3-month-old Agnes on the 17th was followed by that of Emma, aged 26, just two days later. Both passed away at the Rose family home in St Cuthbert Street, Bedford.

How did Fanny Atcherley, in Manchester, meet and become the second wife of Edward Paine Rose of Bedford? One possibility is that religious connections helped to bring the two together. Edward was said to have had a “life-long association with the Bunyan Church”. As fellow non-conformist Christians Edward and Fanny were kindred spirits. Did the Rev John Brown, co-pastor of the Bunyan Meeting and former minister of Park Chapel in Manchester, act as matchmaker? Or were connections of another sort involved?

Edward Rose was a linen and woollen draper – following the death of his father Thomas Rose, he had taken over the family business in Bedford in 1863 and managed it in partnership with his stepmother, Mary. John Atcherley meanwhile was listed as a silk mercer in Slater’s Directory of Manchester and Salford of 1863. Notices published in the London Gazette in 1865 and 1867 show that John, in partnership with others, was running John Satterfield and Co., Linen Drapers and Silk Mercers, in St Anne’s Square in Manchester. By 1869 the business was being referred to as “John Satterfield & Co. (Oliver and Atcherley)”. Trade connections may well have brought John Atcherley into contact with Edward Rose, and as a successful draper Edward must have seemed a good match for John’s eldest daughter.

The census of 1871 captured a snapshot of Edward and Fanny’s life together, a little over four months after their wedding. Edward P Rose, 30, a native of Bedford, was a draper employing 42 persons. Wife Fanny, aged 20, and son Thomas, 6, completed the family, which was supported by a cook and a general servant. Although she was not part of the household, Edward’s stepmother and business partner Mary (then living at 22 St Peters Green in Bedford) may also have provided some support to Fanny. She was after all familiar with the situation that Fanny was in. Edward Rose had lost his birth mother Emma (nee Paine) soon after he was born at the end of 1840, and Mary had then married the widowed draper Thomas Rose in 1846.

Edward and Fanny’s first child was already on the way when the 1871 census was taken. The birth of Edward Barkley Rose was registered at Bedford in the last quarter of that year. Three more children followed: Frank Atcherley Rose (born 5 October 1873), John Leonard Rose (birth registered in the last quarter of 1877) and Isobel Gwendoline Rose (known as Gwen, born 15 January 1884 – pictured right). The demands of motherhood no doubt occupied much of Fanny’s life during the 1870s, ‘80s and ‘90s, although she did have help. Both the 1881 and 1891 censuses show that the Rose household included a nurse in addition to other servants.

Edward meanwhile continued to run his drapery business in Bedford’s High Street. Directories listed him as both a “wholesale and retail draper, silk mercer, and woollen merchant” and a “mantle warehouseman, milliner, and dressmaker”. But he also involved himself with the Bunyan Meeting (of which he was a Trustee) and the wider community in Bedford. When a meeting was held in 1872 to discuss the establishment of a local branch of the Young men’s Christian Association, Edward attended on behalf of the Bunyan Meeting, and agreed to be the Treasurer of the branch.

Other bodies on which Edward served included the Town Council and the Harpur Trust, a charity established in 1566 to provide education, recreational facilities and relief to Bedford residents in need of assistance. Edward was, in addition, made a Justice of the Peace for the Borough of Bedford in 1894, and it was said that “as far as his health permitted, he gave assiduous attention to the duties of that office”. Edward provided financial as well as practical support to a number of local causes: after his death it was written that “His philanthropy was shown in the erection of the Cabmen’s Shelter in St. Peter’s and in subscriptions to several charitable institutions, especially those in which the late Mrs. Rose was interested.”

From the quote above it can be seen that Fanny Rose, nee Atcherley, predeceased her husband. She died shortly before midnight on Monday 30 March 1908 at the family home, 45 De Parys Avenue in Bedford (which Edward had built and into which the Roses moved, from St Cuthbert Street, around 1894). She had been “ailing for the past five or six weeks, and succumbed after an operation.” It was following her death, and particularly after her funeral, that Fanny’s devotion to her faith and to charitable causes were published:

During her residence in Bedford this amiable and estimable lady was keenly and practically interested in charitable work, and movements for the amelioration of the sick and suffering. In the social and religious work of Bunyan Meeting she naturally found pleasure and occupation, but her sympathies were by no means confined to congregational limits. Mrs. Rose frequently attended the sewing and general meetings of the Bedford Women’s Liberal Association, and helped gladly in the educational work. … Her interest in intellectual movements was shown by her support for several years of the University Extension lectures in the town, and Mrs. Rose herself was a regular attendant. To the Work of the Charity Organisation Society Mrs. Rose gave her close attention, and she was also a member of the House Committee of the Bedford District Nursing Association, which was established in affiliation with Queen Victoria’s Jubilee Institute for Nurses. Her connexion with these societies brought her in contact with the poor, and her valuable service will be missed by all concerned. Her activities were manifest in useful channels, her advice was very helpful, and her service was always cheerfully given. Many and genuine are the expressions of sorrow and condolence received by her bereaved husband and family, for whom sincere sympathy is very generally felt.

It is not surprising to learn that Fanny’s coffin “was completely hidden by the exceedingly beautiful floral emblems and tokens placed upon it.” It was said that her death was “a blow from which [her husband] never recovered”. Having lost his wife, and also his only daughter, Gwen (on 30 June 1910) Edward Paine Rose passed away at ten o’clock on the morning of 10 June 1911. He departed this life knowing that he had made provision for his surviving children, for the Bunyan Meeting and other local causes, and for the continuation of the family business. He knew too that he had left a fitting tribute to his late beloved wife: “a beautiful stained glass window” in the Bunyan Memorial Hall, built in 1910 at Elstow, the Bedfordshire village in which John Bunyan had been born.

Picture credits. Fanny Rose, nee Atcherley: From a photo kindly supplied by Barbara Lang. The Bunyan Chapel, Bedford: Illustration taken from John Bunyan, and his Church at Bedford, published 1864 and therefore out of copyright. Gwen Rose: From a photo kindly supplied by Barbara Lang.

For photographs of more of Fanny’s children, and of her sisters, see Fanny, Jessy, Rose and Lily Atcherley in the Photos section of this website.


[1] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 10 Apr 1908, page 8. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[2] Archibald Sparke (1913), Bibliographia Boltoniensis. Pages 39-41. Copy viewed at Internet Archive.
[3] Samuel Macauley Jackson (ed.) (1952), The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. II: Basilica – Chambers. Electronic copy viewed at Christian Classics Ethereal Library (website, accessed 19 Jul 2015).
[4] Benjamin Nightingale (1893), Lancashire Non-Conformity. Pages 196-7 (Park Chapel) and 110 (Cannon Street Congregational Church). Copy viewed at Internet Archive (page 196, page 113).
[5] Hunter’s Croft Independent, Manchester, Lancashire, baptism register covering 1851. Entry for Fanny Atcherley. Abstract at Lancashire Online Parish Clerk website.
[6] 1851 Census of England and Wales. Piece 2229, folio 7, page 7.
[7] 1861 Census of England and Wales. Piece 2949, folio 12, page 15.
[8] Congregational church. At: Wikipedia (website, accessed 19 Jul 2015).
[9] Thomas Allen Blyth, Joseph James Insull (1864), John Bunyan, and his Church at Bedford. Appendix. Copy viewed at Google Books.
[10] Marriage of Edward Paine Rose and Fanny Atcherley registered at Manchester, December quarter 1870; volume 8d, page 781.
[11] Cambridge Independent Press, 26 Nov 1870, page 8. Marriages. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[12] Marriage of Edward Paine Rose and Emma Goode registered at St Giles, March quarter 1864; volume 1b, page 594.
[13] Cambridge Independent Press, 19 Mar 1864, page 8. Marriages. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[14] A church with two spires. At: Bloomsbury Central Baptist Church website, accessed 22 Jul 2015.
[15] Birth of Thomas Edward Rose registered at Bedford, March quarter 1865; volume 3b, page 337.
[16] Birth of Agnes Emma Rose registered at Bedford, March quarter 1867; volume 3b, page 336.
[17] Death of Agnes Emma Rose registered at Bedford, June quarter 1867; volume 3b, page 206; age given as 0.
[18] Death of Emma Rose registered at Bedford, June quarter 1867; volume 3b, page 200; age given as 26.
[19] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 26 May 1867, page 5. Deaths. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[20] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 14 Jul 1911, page 7. Death of Mr. E. P. Rose, J.P. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[21] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 16 Oc 1925, page 32. E. P. ROSE & SON, LTD. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[22] London Gazette, issue 23954, 28 Feb 1873, page 1322. (Notice of expiry of Partnership between Mary Rose, Widow, and Edward Paine Rose.)
[23] Slater’s Directory of Manchester and Salford (1863), page 85 (Manchester Directory).
[24] London Gazette, issue 23042, 24 Nov 1865, page 5965.
[25] London Gazette, issue 23311, 15 Oct 1867, page 5515.
[26] Slater’s Directory (1869), page 130 (Manchester).
[27] 1871 census of England and Wales. Piece 1541, folio 6, pages 4 and 5. Head: Edward P Rose, 30, draper employing 42 persons, born Bedford. Wife: Fanny Rose, 20, born Manchester, Lancashire. Son: Thomas E Rose, 6, scholar, born Bedford. Plus 2 servants (cook, domestic servant).
[28] 1871 census of England and Wales. Piece 1541, folio 82, page 24. 22 St Peters Green, Bedford. Head: Mary Rose, widow, 50, draper, born Bedford. Son: Thomas Harry Rose, 23, draper (employed), born Bedford. Son: John H Rose, 15, scholar, born Bedford. Dau: Fanny E Rose, 13, scholar, born Bedford. Plus a visitor and 2 servants (housemaid, kitchenmaid).
[29] Marriage of Thomas Rose and Emma Paine registered at Caxton &c, March quarter 1840; volume 14, page 47.
[30] Birth of Edward Paine Rose registered at Bedford, March quarter 1841; volume 6, page 28.
[31] Death of Emma Rose registered at Bedford, March quarter 1841; volume 6, page 20.
[32] Marriage of Thomas Rose and Mary Green registered at Bedford, June quarter 1846; volume 6, page 91.
[33] Birth of Edward Barkley Rose registered at Bedford, December quarter 1871; volume 3b, page 304.
[34] Birth of Frank Atcherley Rose registered at Bedford, December quarter 1873; volume 3b, page 316.
[35] Douglas Harmer (1935), Frank Atcherley Rose, M.B., B.Chir.(Camb.), F.R.C.S.(Eng.). In: The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, volume 50, issue 7, pages 563-565. Partial copy viewed at Cambridge Journals.
[36] Birth of John Leonard Rose registered at Bedford, December quarter 1877; volume 3b, page 331.
[37] Birth of Isobel Gwendoline Rose registered at Bedford, March quarter 1884; volume 3b, page 318.
[38] Anon (1948), Girton College Register, 1869-1946. Page 163. Snippet viewed at Google Books.
[39] 1881 census of England and Wales. Piece 1618, folio 7, page 7. 16 St Cuthbert Street, Bedford. Head: Edward P Rose, 40, draper, born Bedford. Wife: Fanny Rose, 30, born Manchester, Lancashire. Son: Thomas E Rose, 16, scholar, born Bedford. Son: Edward B Rose, 9, scholar, born Bedford. Son: Frank A Rose, 7, scholar, born Bedford. Son: John L Rose, 3, scholar, born Bedford. Sister-in-law: Lilly Atcherley, 18, born Manchester, Lancashire. Plus 4 servants (cook, housemaid, nurse, servant).
[40] 1891 census of England and Wales. Piece 1248, folio 28, page 5. Bedford. Head: Edward P Rose, 50, draper, born Bedford. Wife: Fanny Rose, 40, born Manchester, Lancashire. Son: Edward B Rose, 19, steam engine maker’s apprentice, born Bedford. Son: Frank A Rose, 17, scholar, born Bedford. Son: John L Rose, 13, scholar, born Bedford. Dau: Isabel G Rose, 7, scholar, born Bedford. Plus 3 servants (nurse, cook, housemaid).
[41] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 3 Nov 1872, page 4. The London Young Men’s Christian Association. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[42] Who are we? At: Harpur Trust website (accessed 23 Jul 2015).
[43] Royal County Directory of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire, 1876. Page 40. Snippet viewed at Google Books.
[44] Kelly’s Directory of Bedfordshire, Hunts, and Northamptonshire, 1885. Snippet viewed at Google Books.
[45] Birmingham Daily Post, issue 11104, 20 Jan 1894. Gleanings.
[46] Death of Fanny Atcherley Rose registered at Bedford, June quarter 1908; volume 3b, page 175; age given as 57.
[47] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 21 Dec 1945, page 10. The Late Mr. J. L. Rose. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[48] Death of Isobel G Rose registered at Bedford, September quarter 1910; volume 3b, page 141; age given as 26.
[49] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 8 Jul 1910, page 9. Funeral of the late Miss Gwendolen Rose. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[50] Death of Edward P Rose registered at Bedford, September quarter 1911; volume 3b, page 345; age given as 70.
[51] Bedfordshire Times and Independent, 13 Oct 1911, page 7. Mr. E. P. Rose’s Will. Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[52] The Bunyan Meeting at Elstow. At: Bedfordshire Archives and Records Service website (accessed 23 Jul 2015).

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James Roger Atcherley’s American Civil War – Part 1

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By the end of 1860, tensions between the northern and southern United States regarding the issue of slavery had reached breaking point. On 20 December, South Carolina adopted an ordinance of secession, becoming the first state to secede from the Union. Six more states followed and on 4 February 1861 the Confederate States of America was established. The stage was set for the American Civil War – a conflict in which English-born James Roger Atcherley would take part. Now, over 150 years later, we can relive some of James’s Civil War experiences, thanks to an extraordinary series of letters which he wrote to his local paper back home in Newark, Ohio.

On 12 April 1861, firing by Confederate forces upon Union-held Fort Sumpter in South Carolina marked the opening of hostilities between North and South. In his inaugural address as the 16th President of the United States on just over a month earlier, Abraham Lincoln had declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. His hand now forced, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to be provided from the militias of the North, and he declared a naval blockade of the breakaway southern states.

Ohio was one of the states which answered the call to arms, raising regiments of men and sending them south to fight as part of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry. At Newark, in Licking County, John H Putnam started recruiting during the summer of 1861. He based himself at McCune’s Hardware store, and offered a rate of pay starting at $13 per month for men joining up as Privates, up to $45 per month for Second Lieutenants.

Under Putnam’s Captaincy, Company C of the 31st Ohio Volunteers departed Newark for Camp Chase on 13 September. Two weeks later on 27 September, along with the rest of the 31st, Company C received marching orders and reported to Brigadier General O M Mitchell at Cincinnati. From there, the regiment marched to Camp Dick Robinson in Kentucky, arriving on 2 October.

The Newark Advocate of 15 November 1861 carried a letter dated 1 November and signed “J. R. B.”. It opened: ”Mr. Editor:—If there is a Township in Licking County that has turned out more volunteers for the war in proportion to its voters than Union we should be glad to know it.” The author concluded “People of Licking! Shall the army of disunionists  be suffered to triumph? No! no! it must never be! Then up and strike for the perpetuity of the GREAT REPUBLIC!”

Appended was a list of the names of 79 men who had volunteered, and whose names also appeared in the First Muster Roll of the 31st Volunteer Regiment’s Company C. One name not included in the list printed in the Newark Advocate was that of 20-year-old James Roger Atcherley. He had, however, answered the call on 14 September and he too featured in Company C’s First Muster Roll. Furthermore, a letter which he had sent from Camp Dick Robinson, dated 4 November 1861 and signed “Respectfully, J. A.”, was printed on the same page of the Advertiser.

It was evidently not James’s first letter to the paper, but it is the earliest one that I have a copy of. Headed “Army Correspondence, Letter from a Newark Boy”, the letter read as follows. (I have transcribed verbatim – I cannot bring myself to edit James’s wonderful writing – but I have added extra paragraph breaks for ease of reading. Note that Company C – or part of it – had by this time become Company H.)

Mr. Editor:—Since I last wrote, many and various have been the changes here.—Regiments have been pushed along South with a rapidity and energy which, if persevered in, must shortly result in delivering Kentucky from the contaminating influence of those who now pollute her soil.  A battle has been lost and won, the results of which are not limited to the mere fact of our forces driving the enemy before them, but are boundless, in the good they will do to the cause, not only by the encouraging effect it will have upon the Union loving portion, but by totally disheartening the rebels.

The 31st has also moved, not very far to be sure, nor do I know of any very important results that are anticipated from it, but you see they were moving all around us, and so in order to keep up with the times we followed suite and left our encampment on the hill side, and after a heavy march of some five minutes we deposited ourselves and baggage in the camp just vacated by the 2d Kentucky regiment.

The population of Camp Dick has been gradually growing less, and yesterday the last regiment that was left to bear us company, struck their tents and left for parts unknown, leaving us to the pleasant task of guarding all of Uncle Sam’s good things.  But now that we are pretty well assured that we have ‘But a few more days to tote the weary load,’ when we shall press forward to more lively scenes, we console ourselves with the fact that ‘there’s a good time coming.’

Heretofore the health of the regiment has been excellent, not one member of it having died, and but a few, a short time ago had been sick; but now, I am sorry to say, our sick list is very large; few, however, are seriously ill; but the sickness, taken in connection with the fact that a number of our men have been detailed for other duty, reduces the number of men in Company H, who are fit for duty, very much, which makes guard and other duties come rather hard upon the rest of us; and by the by, this is the time for any of the Newark boys who wish to join our company.  Ten or twelve would be very acceptable at this time, and I know there’s plenty of them left yet.  A few of my old friends would look very pretty in a blue suit and brass buttons.

Our officers are anticipating a grand time on to-morrow eve in the shape of a fancy ball, the preparations for which have been in progress for a week or more; and now the platform is built, the money collected, (but where it came from I don’t know, for I haven’t seen a five cent piece for—well, I won’t say how long, for you wouldn’t believe me if I’d tell you,) and last, but not least, the fair beings who, of course, are to form the great attraction, are invited.—Look out, ye fair ones of Newark, that the very susceptible officers of company H do not fall in love with and marry some one of these fair ones (or their plantations.)

We are just beginning to see and feel the first signs of Old Winter.  He comes upon us gradually, as though he were trying to steal a march upon us, but ‘it can’t be did,’ for in point of clothing we are pretty well prepared to meet him.  Still it is cool enough to sleep comfortably with our heads under our blankets, and as we hope soon to turn our faces Southward toward the sunny land where it is said winter never comes, we are not troubled about cold hands and feet.

And now, Mr. Editor, with these few words I will say good bye, hoping that the next time I write to be able to give you some items of more interest. 

Rev L F Drake, chaplain 31st Ohio volunteers, preaching
at camp Dick Robinson, KY, November 10th 1861

James Atcherley would come to change his opinion about conditions in the South, but not yet awhile. In these early days of his involvement on the periphery of the civil war, life was generally good and there was much to amuse and entertain. A further letter from James, also from Camp Dick Robinson and dated 10 November 1861 (the date on which the Rev Drake, chaplain, preached to the 31st Ohio Volunteers, as shown in the picture above), appeared in the Newark Herald of 22 November:

Mr. Editor:—If there is any truth in the old adage, ‘Laugh and grow fat,’ I advise those of my friends who are in a delicate state of health to travel with all speed for Camp Dick, take their stations under one of the trees, and watch our boys as they are engaged in the somewhat hazardous task of breaking mules.

Here is a mule with a long rope tied to his head, his fore feet thrown forward, resisting the persuasive influence of the boys at the other end of the rope.  Yonder is another whose hind feet can be seen for a moment raised horizontally in the air, and then off he goes at a double quick, kicking at any and everything which happens to be in his way.—There again are four mules attached to a wagon, said wagon being full of soldier boys, with a boy riding one of the fore, and another one of the hind mules, dashing through the camp at railroad speed, and only coming to a stand-still when brought up by the fence or a tree.

We have been having some fine times here between the mules and dancing.  Oh yes!  I must tell you about that dance, it was a grand affair I can assure you, and one in which the good of all who were connected with it was shown by the neatness which was visible in all they did. …

To be continued.

Picture credits. Map of United States, 1861, showing affiliation of states and territories regarding the Civil War: Based on a map by Julio Reis, taken from Wikimedia Commons, adapted, used and made available for re-use under a Creative Commons licence. Rev. L.F. Drake, chaplain 31st Ohio volunteers, preaching at camp Dick Robinson, KY, November 10th 1861: Image from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division (Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-1794), no known restrictions on publication.


[1] American Civil War. At: Wikipedia (website, accessed 12 Jul 2015).
[2] St Alkmund, Whitchurch, Shropshire, baptism register. Entry dated 17 Feb 1841 for James Rodger Atcherley. Copies viewed at Shropshire Archives and at Findmypast – Shropshire Baptisms. Indexed at FamilySearch, Batch C03756-3, Film 501818, 503826, 503827.
[3] Dan Fleming (2011), Early recruiting done in Licking County. In: Licking County 150th Anniversary Civil War Commemoration, pages 10-11.
[4] Newark Advocate, 15 Nov 1861, page 2. Scan of letters provided by Dan Fleming.
[5] N N Hill, Jr. (1881), History of Licking County, O., Its Past and Present. Pages 308-9. Copy viewed at Hathi Trust website.
[6] Newark Advocate, 22 Nov 1861, page 3. Scan of letter provided by Dan Fleming.

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