The Misses Atcherley and the Salop Penitentiary – Part 2

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During the Victorian era, many things were referred to as ‘great social evils’. From the late 1850s onwards however, the great social evil was female prostitution and its effects on public morality, order and health. Many had ideas on the causes and remedies of this ‘evil’; with regard to the latter, the approach taken by female penitentiaries was among the more charitable and practical. But the numbers of women engaged in prostitution meant that institutions such as the Salop Penitentiary, even with support from the Misses Atcherley and other well-wishers, had their work cut out.

Prostitution had of course been around long before Victoria ascended to the throne. Even “Cicelie the comon harlott”, whose “base sonne” John was baptised at Whittington in Shropshire on 5 September 1591 (and buried there 11 days later) was far from being the first to ply her trade. But it was during Victoria’s reign that the number of women who supported themselves in this way, grew to such an extent that it became a major public issue.

“The great social evil” as a phrase used in connection with prostitution appeared in print as early as 1847, in a brief report which appeared in several newspapers towards the end of that year. The report related to a public meeting in Exeter, held to promote the work of “the Associate Institution, established for the better protection of women by law.” It concluded by stating that public feeling was “becoming more keenly alive” to the ‘evil’ in question.

A decade passed before the coupling of this phrase with prostitution became fixed in the public’s consciousness. An article in the Morning Advertiser of 16 October 1857 for example, about a banquet held in honour of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, included notes on the reading of a paper on prostitution by William Acton. Acton noted that “[the] academical Saturday Review, the Times, and Punch” had “opened their pages to discussions on the subject” (the illustration here is from an 1857 edition of Punch). Letters and articles appeared in many other publications that year too, and in the years which followed. In 1858 a “Speech on the Great Social Evil”, given in court by Mr Serjeant Valentine, was reproduced in the press. This may have been the basis for a pamphlet published that year under Valentine’s name: The Great Social Evil; Or, Delicate Question.

Returning to William Acton and his paper of 1857, the author said that “he was convinced that the time had arrived for opening a campaign against the greatest of our social evils”, although he was under no illusion that prostitution could or would ever be “exterminated”. He also asserted that people who wished to join the campaign were “unfit for the task who could forget that it was often the result of impending starvation, and that remedy was to be found in an altered state of society.” It was in fact the already altering state of society which was making matters worse.

Society was in the process of changing from its former state of being predominantly agrarian and rural in nature, to a new one which was industrial and urban. (Analysis of data from the 1851 census of England Wales suggested that just over half the population was by that time living in ‘urban districts’.) The author of a letter to the editor of the Preston Chronicle – published in 1857 under the heading “The Great Social Evil” – maintained that prostitution was “the crying evil of large towns”. The increasing numbers of women living in towns and cities were finding their options for making ‘an honest living’ very limited. Often thought of as being ‘seduced’ by men, and referred to as ‘fallen women’, it is clear that many who took ‘the wages of sin’ were effectively pushed into doing so by the socio-economic conditions which then prevailed. As we will see, this applied to women in Shrewsbury too.

“The Great Social Evil”, used in connection with prostitution, had reached the readers of Shropshire’s press by 1859, when the columns of advertisements and public notices included entries paid for by the “Royal Institute of Anatomy and Science” (which I very much doubt had royal patronage!). These offered published lectures by a Dr W B Marston on three subjects, the third of which was, you’ve guessed it, The Great Social Evil. In later version of the advert, the meaning of “The Great Social Evil” was clarified with the following additional sentence: “All the painful Diseases which result from it, with Dr. Marston’s Unfailing System of Treatment, by which Mercury is altogether dispensed with.”

The increased extent of prostitution had inevitably helped to spread sexually transmitted infections, and in particular the debilitating and disfiguring disease of syphilis. Dr Marston’s treatment was unlikely to have been effective (let alone “unfailing”) but it might at least have been less toxic than mercury, the poisonous and painful remedy which was usually administered at the time.

What of prostitution in Shrewsbury, home of the Misses Atcherley and of the institution they helped to fund, the Salop Penitentiary? Its true extent is very difficult to ascertain, but some idea is possible thanks to Thomas Darlington, enumerator of District number 2 in the parish of St Chad when the census of 1861 was carried out. Thomas identified 23 out of 240 households in his district – just under 10% – as brothels. (For abstracts see references 17 to 39 below.)

Map showing locations of (1) College Hill (home of the Misses Atcherley), (2) Dogpole (original location of the Salop Penitentiary), (3) St Julian’s Friars (location of the second Salop Penitentiary, or Salop Home), and (4) Roushill and neighbouring passages and ‘shuts’ (location of many of Shrewsbury’s brothels before, during and after the Victorian era).

These ‘houses of ill fame’ were located in Roushill, Masons Court, Masons Passage (nowadays Phoenix Place), Sheeps Head Shut (long since gone) and Kings Head Shut. The unmarried or widowed female heads of many of these households were mostly recorded as Brothel Keepers, and although only two young female occupants (both in one household) were described as Prostitutes, others were bracketed together under the occupation ‘Brothel’. Of those young women who were said to be servants or lodgers in these households  – one was just 14 years old – most were probably also prostitutes. (The legal age of consent did not rise from 12 to 16 until 1885.)

In an article entitled Red Lights in Roushill (published in 1984), Joyce Butt described the “remarkably frank census returns of 1861” as “a key which has opened numerous doors, giving access to aspects of Victorian Shrewsbury which its inhabitants preferred to overlook.” Using that census and those taken before and after it, along with reports in the local papers, Joyce was able to build up a picture of Shrewsbury’s sex trade, those involved in it, and some of their ‘newsworthy’ activities, in and around the mid-1800s.

Most of the brothels in the Roushill area were situated in close proximity to some of the neighbourhood’s inns, which would have been used as venues to ‘pick up customers’. Some of the prostitutes, typically working in pairs, would rob their drunken or otherwise unsuspecting clients at, or en route to, their ‘dens of vice’. The court cases which sometimes resulted generated newspaper coverage, as did the drunken and obscene behaviour of some of the more notorious of Shrewsbury’s prostitutes.

Joyce found that the ages of those involved in the trade ranged from the 14 year old who I have already highlighted, right up to veterans in their 60s. Most did not continue beyond their late 20s however, “probably because disease and poverty brought them to early deaths.” Many of the prostitutes were natives of Shrewsbury, with some being the daughters of former (or active) prostitutes. Others came from Shrewsbury’s rural hinterland or beyond to take up work as needlewomen, but then resorted to prostitution because of the low wages paid in their intended employment.

In contrast to the detail it provided regarding the brothels of Shrewsbury St Chad, the 1861 census was rather less forthcoming about the inmates of the Salop Penitentiary. Only the initials of the first and last names of the young women (eight in total) were given. Names were given in full on the four other censuses from 1851 to 1891 which included the penitentiary, along with the usual additional information (see References 42 to 46 below). In all, these censuses give us a sample of 53 out of the 200+ inmates who resided at the penitentiary over its lifetime. 35 (66%) were born Shropshire (5 in Shrewsbury itself), 17 (32%) were born outside of the county, and the birthplace of one inmate was unknown. The ages of the inmates ranged from 16 to 28, with 34 of the inmates (64%) falling in the age range 17 to 20. A more detailed breakdown of the number of inmates at each age within the total range can be seen in the graph below.

The penitentiary’s inmates (who had entered voluntarily) were doubtless kept under strict supervision, and worked hard washing clothes or carrying out needlework to help earn their keep. Religious instruction would have been a key part of their ‘rehabilitation’: the aim was to ‘save their souls’ while also giving them experience of work which they would need if they were to survive ‘on the outside’ without returning to their former ways.

Drink was also forbidden – in a paper which was read in 1868, a key supporter, Mrs Wightman, stated: “As, with very few exceptions, these have been addicted to drink, it is most important that they should, on leaving the penitentiary, continue to do without that which has been to them the great incentive to vice.” Not all of those who opted for ‘reform’ at the penitentiary would have been able to adapt to its ways, but I have found no evidence to support Joyce Butt’s conclusion, in her above-mentioned article, that its regime was harsh and uncaring.

I concluded the first part of this story with details of the penitentiary’s appeal for increased contributions, following the building of its new premises at St Julian’s Friars in Shrewsbury. Such appeals continued – the institution’s committee were forced to borrow £200 “to discharge the builder’s account.” In addition, as had long been the case, annual income was insufficient to meet the institutions ongoing costs.

In 1878 the penitentiary was renamed, becoming The Salop Home. Yet another appeal was mounted, in which it was stated that “more than 200 cases have been brought under the care of the Committee, many of whom have stayed out their two years’ probation, and of whom certainly two-thirds, and probably three-fourths, have been rescued from a life of sin and shame to one of steadiness, usefulness, and respectability.” Heading the list of subscribers were the Rev and Mrs Wightman with £10. George Robert Jebb, nephew of the Misses Atcherley, was also on the list with a subscription of one guinea. It was also in this year that the Atcherleys of Marton Hall donated to the cause – sending £15 which was “part proceeds of the Marton Hall Amateur Opera Performance” in April.

The Jubilee of the Salop Home was marked in 1894, by which time Margaret was the only survivor of the Misses Atcherley in Shrewsbury. Margaret passed away two years later in 1896. This was just three months after the decease of the Rev Wightman, long-serving secretary of the Salop Home. When the above-mentioned Mrs Wightman followed her late husband to the grave in 1898, the Salop Home lost one of its most ardent supporters. Was it the loss of its two greatest champions which led to the Home’s own demise not long afterwards? In October 1900, the following notice appeared in the press:

It having been found undesirable to continue the Salop Home for Girls, St. Julian’s Friars, Shrewsbury, the institution has been handed over to the Salop Police Court Mission, and converted into home for boys, the head of which is Mr. E. B. Kersley, the police court missioner.

In January 1901, the committee which had run the home announced that it was closing its accounts, “and would be glad if any outstanding accounts could be sent to Mrs. Trouncer” no later than the 19th of that month. So ended the life of a very Victorian institution, which had existed entirely within that monarch’s long reign. There were many young women who had cause to be grateful for its existence, and for the donors – such as the Misses Atcherley – who made its work possible.


Picture credits. The Great Social Evil: Adapted from an image in Punch, 1857, copyright expired; adapted from a copy at Wikimedia Commons. Map of Shrewsbury showing College Hill, Dogpole, St Julian’s Friars and Roushill area: Adapted extract from Ordnance Survey map sheet SJ41, published 1957 and therefore out of copyright. Graph showing age range and numbers of Salop Penitentiary inmates on censuses from 1851 to 1891: By the author.


References

Copies of all newspaper pages below viewed at British Newspaper Archive unless otherwise stated. See also references for previous stories about the Misses Atcherley.

[1] Whittington, Shropshire, parish register covering 1591. Entries dated 5 and 16 Sep for the baptism of “John, the base sonne of Cicelie the comon harlott” and the burial of “John ap Edward, the child of Cicelie”. Abstract at Mel Lockie’s website.
[2] Norfolk News, 9 Oct 1847, page 4 (column 7). “A meeting has been held at Exeter […]”.
[3] Nottingham Review, 29 Oct 1847, page 6 (column 3). “A meeting has been held at Exeter […]”.
[4] Coleraine Chronicle, 6 Nov 1847, page 2 (column 2). “A meeting has been held at Exeter […]”.
[5] Morning Advertiser, 16 Oct 1857, page 3 (column 1). The National Association for the Promotion of Social Science.
[6] Rochdale Pilot, 1 May 1858, page 3. Speech on The Great Social Evil, By Mr. Serjeant Valentine.
[7] Serjeant Valentine (1858), The Great Social Evil; Or, Delicate Question. Indexed, but no preview, at Google Books.
[8] Preston Chronicle, 13 Jun 1857, page 6. The Great Social Evil.
[9] Edward Higgs (undated), Rural/urban definitions. At: histpop (website, accessed 25 Sep 2017).
[10] Esme Bajic (2013), ‘The Great Social Evil’- Prostitution and the Other Side of Victorian Sexuality. At: Reframing the Victorians (blog).
[11] Fraser Joyce (2008), Prostitution and the Nineteenth Century: In Search of the ‘Great Social Evil’. In: Reinvention: a Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume 1, Issue 1. Copy viewed at the Reinvention website.
[12] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, 6 Jul 1859, page 3. Royal Institute of Anatomy and Science. Copy viewed at British Newspaper Archive. Note: Advertisement continued to appear in this form until at least 28 Sep 1859.
[13] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, 19 Oct 1859, page 3. Valuable Medical Books Gratis.
[14] History of syphilis. At: Wikipedia (website, accessed 24 Sep 2017).
[15] Lindsey Fitzharris (2010), ‘One night with Venus, a lifetime with Mercury’: Syphilis and ‘Syphilophobes’ in Early Modern England. At: The Chirurgeon’s Apprentice (blog).
[16] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 34 (no page number). Superintendent Registrar’s District Shrewsbury. Registrar’s Sub-District Saint Chad, Shrewsbury. Enumeration District, No. 2. Name of Enumerator, Mr. Thomas Darlington.
[17] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 46, page 20. Schedule No. 130. Brothel, Rousehill, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Margaret Colley, unmarried, 32, Silk Weaver, born Cockshut. Mother: Mary [Colley], unmarried, [blank], born Ellesmere; Blind. Lodger: Thomas Holliday, unmarried, 40, [?], born Suffolk. Lodger: Emma Bale, unmarried, 21, Servant, born Wellington. Lodger: Mary Ann Williams, unmarried, 29, servant, born Welshpool, Montgomeryshire.
[18] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 46, page 20. Schedule No. 131. [Brothel, Rousehill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Jane Blower, unmarried, 28, Brothel Keeper, born Knockin. Lodger: Harriet Williams, unmarried, 20, Servant, born Ruabon, Denbighshire. Lodger: William Edwards, unmarried, 22, Labr., born Church Shelton.
[19] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 46, page 20 and folio 47, page 21. Schedule No. 132. [Brothel, Rousehill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Jane Payne, widow, 25, Brothel Keeper, born Shrewsbury. Son: Henry [Payne], unmarried, 8, born Shrewsbury. Daughter Sarah Jane [Payne], unmarried, 6, born Shrewsbury. Daughter: Ellen [Payne], unmarried, 3, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Mary Ann Gittins, unmarried, 20, Prostitute, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Bridget Conway, unmarried, 20, [Prostitute], born Wellington.
[20] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 47, page 22. Schedule No. 133. Roushill, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Emma Matthews, unmarried, 30, born Hereford [Herefordshire]. Relationship not specified: Mary Ann Williams, unmarried, 28, born Welshpool, Montgomeryshire. Relationship not specified: Eliza Smith, unmarried, 22, born Chester [Cheshire]. Relationship not specified: George —, [blank], born N K. Relationship not specified: Unknown [male], [blank], born N K. All occupants bracketed together in occupation field with the word Brothel.
[21] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 47, page 22. Schedule No. 134. [Roushill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Ellen Jones, unmarried, 32, Brothel Keeper, born St Chad. Daughter: Margaret [Jones], unmarried, 7, born St Chad [Shrewsbury]. Servant: Mary [Jones], unmarried, 22, born Condover. Lodger: Thomas [Jones], unmarried, 15, born Wolverhampton, Staffordshire. Lodger: William Payne, unmarried, 33, born St Mary Shrewsbury. Servant: Ann Richards, unmarried, 28, born Wem. All occupants after the Head bracketed together in occupation field but with no description.
[22] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 47, page 22. Schedule No. 135. [Roushill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Lucy Wellings, married, 26, Brothel, born St Chad Shrewsbury. Lodger: John Jones, unmarried, 28, Labourer, born Fitz. Servant: Sarah Partridge, unmarried, 21, born Condover. Servant: Elizabeth Evans, unmarried, 43, born Stapleton.
[23] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 48, page 23. Schedule No. 147. [Masons Court] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Sarah Evans, widow, 30, Brothel, born Welshpool, Montgomeryshire. Visitor: Wm Humphreys, unmarried, Labourer, born N K.
[24] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 48, page 23. Schedule No. 148. [Masons Court] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Mary Butler, widow, 43, born [?], Montgomeryshire. Servant: Kate Wilson, unmarried,24, born London. Servant: Mary Rowlands, unmarried, 21, born [? Ellesmere]. Servant: Mary Price, unmarried, 14, born Shrewsbury. Visitor: Unknown, [blank], born N K. Visitor: Unknown, [blank], born N K. All occupants bracketed together in occupation field with the word Brothel.
[25] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 48, page 24. Schedule No. 150. [Roushill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Elizabeth Larkin, unmarried, 26, Dressmaker (Brothel), born Ryton.
[26] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 48, page 24. Schedule No. 153. Roushill, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Jane France, unmarried, 26, Housekeeper (Brothel), born Meole. Boarder: Sarah Lewis, unmarried, 19, Dressmaker, born Coalbrookdale. Boarder: Mary Ann [?], unmarried, 20, [blank], born Wootton, Northampton[shire]. Servant: Mary Hughes, unmarried, 20, [blank], born St Mary Shrewsbury. Visitor: W Marsh, unmarried, 23, Engineer, born St Mary Shrewsbury. Visitor: N K, unmarried, 26, Butcher, born N K.
[27] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 48, page 24. Schedule No. 154. [Roushill] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Mary Anthony, widow, 30, born [?], [Nottinghamshire]. Servant: Jane Weston, unmarried, 20, born Shrewsbury. Servant: Jane Evans, unmarried, 19, born Clunbury. Servant: Eliza Aston, unmarried, 22, born Wistanstow. Servant: Eliza Tisdale, unmarried, 18, born Shrewsbury. Visitor: N K, N K, 19, born N K. Visitor: N K, N K, 22, born N K. All occupants bracketed together in occupation field with the word Brothel.
[28] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 25. Schedule No. 156. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Jane Rees, unmarried, 22, Brothel, born Shrewsbury. Visitor: James Williams, unmarried, 26, Stone Mason, born Shrewsbury.
[29] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 25. Schedule No. 157. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Richard Parry, unmarried, 30, Brothel, Labourer, born Shrewsbury. Relationship not specified: Mary Morgan, unmarried, 22, Housekeeper, born Shrewsbury.
[30] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 25. Schedule No. 158. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Harriet Jones, unmarried, 28, Brothel, born Chirbury. Son: Frederick [Jones], unmarried, 8, born Chirbury. Visitor: Edwin Reynolds, unmarried, 28, Carpenter, born Shrewsbury.
[31] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 25. Schedule No. 159. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Elizabeth Peters, widow, 39, Brothel, born Shrewsbury. Son: Edward [Peters], unmarried, 6, born Shrewsbury. Daughter: Elizabeth [Peters], unmarried, 2, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Samuel Hood, unmarried, 49, Labourer, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Ann Gill, unmarried, 30, [blank], born Shrewsbury.
[32] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 25. Schedule No. 160. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Ann Pursell, unmarried, 39, Brothel, Housekeeper, born Shrewsbury. Son: Joseph [Pursell], unmarried, 19, Labourer, born Shrewsbury. Son: Wm [Pursell], unmarried, 5, born Shrewsbury. Daughter: Ann [Pursell], unmarried, 2, born Shrewsbury.
[33] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 49, page 26. Schedule No. 164. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury.. Head: Sarah Speake, unmarried, 46, Bonnet Maker, Brothel, born Shrewsbury. Son: William Speake, unmarried, 11, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Mary Jacobs, unmarried, 29, [blank], born Aberystwyth, [Cardiganshire].
[34] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 50, page 28. Schedule No. 174. [Masons Passage] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Housekeeper: Sarah Jones, unmarried, 30, Brothel, born Bristol [Gloucestershire]. Lodger: John Dorricott, unmarried, 28, Bricklayer, born St Julian Shrewsbury. Daughter: Eliza Jones, unmarried, 6, born St Chad [Shrewsbury]. Lodger: Rebecca Caldicott, widow, 37, [blank], born Lydbury North. Lodger: Sarah Ward, unmarried29, [blank], born Westbury.
[35] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 52, page 31. Schedule No. 192. Sheeps Head Shut, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Charlotte Jones, Widow, 48, Brothel, born Holy Cross Shrewsbury. Dau: Mary [Jones], unmarried, 23, born St Mary Shrewsbury. Dau: Eliza [Jones], unmarried, 9, born St Mary Shrewsbury. Son: Rd [Jones], unmarried, 6, born St Mary Shrewsbury. Grandson: [Jones], unmarried, 9 weeks, born St Chad Shrewsbury. Visitor: Thomas Reeves, unmarried, 30, Bricklayer, born St Alkmond Shrewsbury.
[36] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 52, page 32. Schedule No. 198. Kings Head Shut, Brothel, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Margaret Morris, widow, 54, Lodging House Keeper, born Oswestry. Boarder: John Duckett, unmarried, 53, Labourer, born Ruyton. Lodger: Harriet Roderick, unmarried, 22, Dress maker, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Caroline Rushgrove, unmarried, Housekeeper, born Ludlow.
[37] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 52, page 32. Schedule No. 199. [Kings Head Shut] Brothel, St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Mary Brown, widow, 30, Housekeeper, born Ellesmere. Lodger: Joseph Lloyd, unmarried, 27, Labourer, born Knockin. Servant: Jane Hughes, unmarried, 20, Servant, born Stockport, Cheshire. Lodger: Elizabeth Jones, unmarried, 24, Servant, born Llangollen, Denbighshire.
[38] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 52, page 32. Schedule No. 200. [Kings Head Shut, Brothel] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Sarah Davies, unmarried, 35, Lodging house Keeper, born Shrewsbury. Lodger: Henry Hughes, unmarried, 31, Bricklayer, born Ellesmere. Servant: Margaret Preece, unmarried, 19, Servant, born Ruyton.
[39] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1873, folio 52, page 32. Schedule No. 201. [Kings Head Shut, Brothel] St Chad, Shrewsbury. Head: Sarah Powell, unmarried, 48, Housekeeper, born Shrewsbury.
[40] Michèle Mendelssohn (2016), “I’m not a bit expensive”: Henry James and the Sexualization of the Victorian Girl. In: Dennis Denisoff (ed.),The Nineteenth-Century Child and Consumer Culture. Copy previewed at Google Books.
[41] Joyce Butt (1984), Red Lights in Roushill. In: Barrie Trinder (ed.) (1984), Victorian Shrewsbury. Pages 66-77.
[42] 1851 census of England and Wales. Piece 1992, folio 414, page 18. Schedule No. 68. Penitentiary, Dogpole, St Alkmund, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Matron: Mary Perry, unmarried, age N K, Matron of [Penitentiary], born [Cholstrey], Herefordshire. Sub-Matron: Maria Hillen, unmarried, 50, Sub-Matron of [Penitentiary], born Condover. Inmate: Mary A Moreton, unmarried, 20, [Inmate of Penitentiary], born Astley. Inmate: Mary A Judson, unmarried, 18, [Inmate of Penitentiary], born N K. Inmate: Mary A Newell, unmarried, 18, [Inmate of Penitentiary], born Longwood. Inmate: Martha Rogers, unmarried, 25, [Inmate of Penitentiary], born Evenwood.
[43] 1861 census of England and Wales. Piece 1872, folio 10, page 14. Schedule No. 69. Penitentiary for outcast females, Dogpole, St Alkmund, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Matron: Elizabeth F Jones, widow, 51, Matron, born Calcutta, India. Sub Matron: Martha Lee, unmarried, 22, Sub Matron, born Astley Abbots. Inmate: H R, unmarried, 25, General Servant, born Hopesgate. Inmate: E H, unmarried, 19, [General Servant], born Middle. Inmate: M M, unmarried, 20, Worker in Factory, born Shrewsbury. Inmate: M S, unmarried, 20, Housemaid, born Wem. Inmate: A M, unmarried, 22, [Housemaid], born Astley. Inmate: E D, unmarried, 22, General Servant, born Pershore, Worcestershire. Inmate: M B, unmarried, 21, Dairymaid, born Montgomery, Montgomeryshire. Inmate: A R, unmarried, 17, General Servant, born Wem.
[44] 1871 census of England and Wales. Piece 2772, folio 35, pages 23 and 24. Schedule No. 120. St Julians Friars, St Julian, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Head: Eliza Hubbard, unmarried, 35, Matron of Salop Penitentiary, born Higham, Norfolk. Assistant: Annie Lockett, unmarried, 29, Sub Matron of [Salop Penitentiary], born Mardwick Green, Manchester [Lancashire]. Inmate: Eliza Cooper, unmarried, 21, Laundress, born Macclesfield, Cheshire. Inmate: Mary E Fitzgerald, unmarried, 19, Laundress, born Oswestry. Inmate: Ellen Morris, unmarried, 21, Laundress, born Oswestry. Inmate: Jane Roberts, unmarried, 21, Laundress, born Shrewsbury. Inmate: Sarah Morris, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born Shrewsbury. Inmate: Priscilla Weale, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born Ironbridge. Inmate: Eliza Jones, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born Shrewsbury. Inmate: Louisa Woodbine, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born Wem. Inmate: Sarah Parker, unmarried, 19, Laundress, born Oakengates. Inmate: Fanny Davies, unmarried, 18, Laundress, born Leegomery. Inmate: Helen Sharrod, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born The Trench. Inmate: Martha Smith, unmarried, 21, Laundress, born Montgomery [Montgomeryshire]. Inmate: Annie Bradshaw, unmarried, 28, Laundress, born St Mary’s Shrewsbury. Inmate: Catharine Owen, unmarried, 19, Laundress, born Port Madoc, Carnarvonshire. Inmate: Sarah Farler, unmarried, 19, Laundress, born Bridge Walton, Malvern, Worcestershire. Inmate: Emily Whitty, unmarried, 23, Laundress, born Crewe, Cheshire. Inmate: Sussanah Prees, unmarried, 20, Laundress, born Longdene.
[45] 1881 census of England and Wales. Piece 2651, folio 15, page 22. Schedule No. 137. “Salop Home”, 8 [St Julians Friars], St Julian, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Head: Carline Page, widow, 46, Matron, born Hoxton, Middlesex. Visitor: Florence Mellor, 5, Scholar, born Manchester [Lancashire]. Laundress: Margret Lane, unmarried, 25, Laundress, born Market Drayton. Inmate: Ann Matthews, unmarried, 18, Domestic Servant, born Dorrington. Inmate: Harriett Davies, unmarried, 17, Domestic Servant, born Oswestry. Inmate: Martha Evans, unmarried, 20, Domestic Servant, born Ellesmere. Inmate: Martha Merrick, unmarried, 18, Domestic Servant, born Oswestry. Inmate: Mary Jane [Bichard?], unmarried, 17, Domestic Servant, born Middleton, Montgomeryshire. Inmate: Elizth Bowdler, unmarried, 17, Domestic Servant, born Wrockwardine. Inmate: Elizth Edwards, unmarried, 16, Domestic Servant, born Wrockwardine. Inmate: Ellen Thompson, unmarried, 19, Domestic Servant, born Whitchurch. Inmate: Esther Williams, unmarried, 21, Domestic Servant, born Wednesbury, Staffordshire. Inmate: Elizth Bromley, unmarried, 17, Domestic Servant, born Llynely, Montgomeryshire. Inmate: Eliza Davies, unmarried, 22, Domestic Servant, born Church Stretton. Inmate: Anne Price, unmarried, 17, Domestic Servant, born Worcester City [Worcestershire]. Inmate: Jessie Meredith, unmarried, 20, Domestic Servant, born Devonport, Devon. [8/5=13]
[46] 1891 census of England and Wales. Piece 2110, folio 96, pages 17 and 18. Schedule No. 108. Salop Home, St Julian Friars, St Julian, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Head: Eleanor Altice, single, 34, Lady Matron Salop Home, born Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire. Assistant: Mary A Lloyd, single, 22, Laundry Matron [Salop Home], born Stanton Lacey. Inmate: Ada E Cridland, single, 17, Inmate, born Birmingham [Warwickshire]. Inmate: Elizabeth A Owens, single, 21, Inmate, born Mold, Flintshire. Inmate: Frances Jones, single, 22, Inmate, born Oswestry. Inmate: Rosalind Harper, single, 19, Inmate, born Welshampton. Inmate: Mary J Morris, single, 18, Inmate, born Ludlow. Inmate: Emily Jones, single, 17, Inmate, born Oswestry. Inmate: Alice M Rogers, single, 23, Inmate, born Pontesbury. Inmate: Jane E Williams, single, 17, Inmate, born Selattyn. Inmate: Ruth Measher, single, 16, Inmate, born [?], Wiltshire. Inmate: Florence M Turner, single, 16, Inmate, born Saltney, Cheshire. Inmate: Mary Smith, single, 24, Inmate, born St Helens Worcester [Worcestershire]. Inmate: Emily Smith, single, 17, Inmate, born Manchester, Lancashire.
[47] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, 23 Dec 1868, page 2. Woman’s Work in the Temperance Reformation. Mrs. Wightman’s Paper.
[48] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, and Salopian Journal, 18 Feb 1874, page 4. “Salop Penitentiary […]there remains still a balance of £200 due to the Contractors […]”.
[49] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, and Salopian Journal, 16 Sep 1874, page 5. “Harvest Thanks-Giving Day in Shrewsbury […] the offerings to-morrow are to be given to the funds of the Salop Penitentiary […] There is a debt of £200 upon the building fund, and of nearly £100 on the annual income of the last year. […]”
[50] Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal, and Salopian Journal, 21 Aug 1878, page 7. The Salop Home.
[51] Wellington Journal, 11 May 1878, page 7. “Salop Penitentiary.—Donation received from D. F. Atcherley, Esq., and Mrs. Atcherley, being part proceeds of the Marton Hall Amateur Opera Performance, April, 1878, £15.” Copy viewed at Findmypast.
[52] Shrewsbury Chronicle, 26 Jan 1894, page 6. Jubilee of the Salop Home.
[53] Wellington Journal, 27 Jan 1894, page 6. Jubilee of the Salop Home.
[54] Peter Turner Winskill (1898), Temperance Standard Bearers of the Nineteenth Century. Volume II, page 537. Copy viewed at Google Books.
[55] Wellington Journal, 15 Jan 1898, page 8. Death of Mrs. Wightman.
[56] Ludlow Advertiser, 27 Oct 1900, page 4. “It having been found undesirable […]”
[57] Wellington Journal, 5 Jan 1901, page 1.

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